3d printing articles 2018

What is 3D Printing ?

3D printing is also known a additive manufacturing, is the process of creating an object by “printing” or laying down material layers until the object is formed. Like an office printer that puts 2D digital files on a piece of paper, a 3D printer creates components by depositing thin layers of material one after another using a digital blueprint until the exact types of components required has been created. 3D printing has the potential to transform science and technology creating bespoke and low-cost appliances which have previously required dedicated facilities. The inception of 3D printing can be traced back to 1976, at that time inkjet printer also invented.

System Requirements

Current and possible technology:

1.Scaffold based approaches

  • Porogen leaching
  • Phase separated scaffolds
  • Gas foaming

2.Textile technologies

  • Electrospinning
  • Knitting and braiding

3.Direct 3D printing technologies

  • Stereo lithography
  • Selective laser sintering
  • Three dimensional printing
  • Systems based on extrusion or direct writing
  • Indirect 3D printing

Mechanical Components

  • Parts of the 3D printer
  • Print base and print head
  • Bionik, extracellular matrix arranged in which cells are layer by layer arranged in particular manner
  • Extracellular matrix should have the same viscous properties as embryonic tissue

Mechanical Processes

There are two types of techniques used

  1. Selective Laser Sintering

The machine uses a computer controlled laser to draw the button cross section onto the surface of a bed coated with a powdered polymer that melts and fuses where struck by the laser. It consists of two pistons and a roller. The build piston moves upwards and the roller pushes the polymeric powder into the build piston. The build pistons is then lowered to depth corresponding to the section’s thickness. The feed piston is moves up again and the roller pushes some of more material. And the next cross section is drawn by directly on top of the previous one. This is repeated until the parts is finished.

2.Fusion Deposition Modeling

The FDM technology is works using a plastic filament or metal wire which is unwound from a coil and supplies materials to an heated extrusion nozzle which can move in any directions. The molten polymeric material is dropped in the form of beads. It instantly solidifies when it exits nozzle forming one layer.

3D Printing Process

Using a 3D digital CAD model as the Blueprint, successive layers of material are precisely deposited or fused by computer controlled print head into the desired 3 dimensional shape. No machining of the part is required, thus no raw material is wasted.

3D Cad Model –> STL file –> Slicing Software –>Layer Slices and Tool Path –> 3D Printer –> 3D Object

Diy 3D Printer


  • Control module – Controller and motor driver
  • Extruder module – Feed and melt filament
  • Router module – XYZ axis movement
  • Print Bed module- Printing bed


  • Draw – Tinkercad
  • Print – Repetier, Ponterface

3D Bioprinting Organs

  • Include growth factors in the scaffolds
  • Have biodegradable scaffolds rather than non-ones or bio active as well
  • Having nano-modification on the scaffolds for better cell in-growth
  • Needs to be included in the scaffold: extracellular matrix, growth factors, vascular network and different cell types
  • Living cells will be patterned into hydro-gel tissue scaffolds.

3D Printing the Future

Industries that apply 3DP today and will apply in future, in case the intended adoption is put into practice is in percentage %

  • Automotive and Aerospace = Current 29% In future 49%
  • Plastics = Current 38% In future 45%
  • Mechanical and plant engineering = Current 29% In future 44%
  • Electronics = Current 27% In future 43%
  • Pharma and Medical = Current 28% In future 38%
  • Consumer goods = Current 18% In future 26%
  • Energy = Current 14% In future 23%
  • Logistics and Transport = Current 10% In future 16%

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Cyber, System and Network Security

Cyber Crime and networking security
Cyber crime is big problem ….

Types of Cyber Security

  • Credit card theft
  • Cyber terrorism
  • Electronic bullying and stalking
  • Identity theft
  • Network intrusions
  • Software piracy

Structure of Cyber Security

  • Mechanisms :- Intrusion and malware detection, Access control, TPM, MTD, Cryptography.
  • Design :- Security architecture, Security Policy, Security metrics, Attack-defense experiments, MA
  • Supporting Techniques :- Network Science, Complex system science, Algebraic graph theory
  • Data-driven :- Statistics, Machine learning, Big data analytics
  • First-principle :- Dynamical Systems, Statistical physics, Stochastic processes, Economic and human factors
  • Operation :- Algorithms, Control theory, Risk management, Game theory

How to Protect Yourself…

  • Always install software updates as soon as they’r available. Whether you’re updating the operating system or an application, the update will often includes fixes for critical security vulnerabilities.
  • Don’t click on links, or open any attachments, you receive in unsolicited e-mails or SMS. The links may leads to malicious website, and any attachments could be infected with malware.
  • Install Anti- Virus software on your PC and mobile devices, and keep it updated. Bear in mind that ransomware can often be picked up by visiting disreputable website including illegal movie streaming websites and some adult sites.
  • Create regular backups of your important files to an external HDD, memory or online storage provider. It’s important that the devices you backups to isn’t left connected to your computer as any malware infected could spread to that too.
  • Don’t pay extortion demands as this only feeds into criminals hands, and there’s no guarantee that access to your files will be restored if you do pay.

Top 10 Network Security Tips

  1. Be aware of phishing attacks
  2. Bio metrics identifications
  3. Password Security
  4. Safeguard your data
  5. Mobile suvviness
  6. Manage risks with the internet of things
  7. Keep the operating system updated
  8. Stay informed of current cyber attacks events and follow precaution measures
  9. PsyOps
  10. Smart shopping

Hot IT Career Choices in 2019

  • System Security Administrator = $72K
  • Data Security Analyst = $78K
  • Network Security Engineer = $78K
  • Information System Security Manager = $120K
  • Chief Privacy Officer = $130K
  • Chief Information Security Officer = $180K
  • Chief Risk Officer = $ 186K

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View my other article : https://www.dbp377.com.np/2019/01/facebook-security-tips

Mobile Device Privacy and Security Challenges

Without the smart phones or device use policy, it is difficult to communicate the organization’s posture on the use of such device. This is a key for first step and usually involves IT and business. Securely manage any devices,application and data. Deploy your any corporate policies on mobile devices. Comply with regular laws. It is projected that iOS and Android will be the leading operating system for smart phone from 2011 on.Once it is known how the smart phones will be used an designing the supporting IT Architecture is the logical next step. Once the IT Architecture design and use policy is defined, then the security policy needs to be documented to determine how the smart phones will be secured to protect organization’s crown jewels.

Understand the smart device security features:

  • Verify that the password policy is meeting industry standards
  • Review the encryption requirements and how encryption is deployed
  • What procedure is in place for reporting of lost devices
  • Is there a requirement for port control on a devices ?
  • What is the device are monitored and tracked
  • What audit and monitoring features are turned on ?
  • What reports are being generated ?

Key Messages

  • There are mobile security challenge but also there are solution too
  • Endpoint management is a required components but not the only solution you will need
  • There are no one size fits all mobile solution
  • The mobile landscape continue to evolve – be flexible and embrace change

Implementation Methodology

Plan Implement Manage methodology provides comprehensive approach to organization to secure and manage the smart phones or devices.

10 Steps of Implementation Methodology

  • Step 1 Plan : Usage Policy
  • Step 2 Plan : IT Architecture
  • Step 3 Plan : Security Policy
  • Step 4 Implement : IT Architecture
  • Step 5 Implement : Enable E-mail, Contact and calendar
  • Step 6 Implement : Enable Application Deployment
  • Step 7 Implement : Enable Network Connection
  • Step 8 : Regulatory Compliance Governance
  • Step 9 : Reports and Dashboard
  • Step 10 : Monitor and Audit

Top 5 Enterprise Mobile Security Concerns

  1. Device loss
  2. Application security
  3. Device data leakage
  4. Malware attacks
  5. Device theft

Primary Concern When Using Mobiles Apps

  • Privacy = 38%
  • Security = 26%
  • Sharing = 14%
  • Identity = 19%
  • None = 3%

Top 5 Commonly Used Apps

  1. Social networking =92%
  2. Messaging and chat = 75%
  3. E- commerce = 70%
  4. Mobile Banking =86%
  5. Mobile Wallet = 65%

Average Smartphone Usage

How is the average person using their mobile device on a daily basis

  • Text Messaging =92% ->10 mins 13 secs
  • Taking Photos = 62% ->3 mins 30 secs
  • E-mailing = 86% ->12 mins 6 secs
  • Gaming = 65% ->16 mins 22 secs
  • Social networking = 66% ->26 mins 29 secs
  • Navigation = 50% -> 7 mins 12 secs
  • Watching Video =54% ->15 mins 9 secs
  • Research =58%-> 9 mins 22 secs
  • Phone calls =78% ->18 mins 6 secs
  • Internet = 98% ->30 mins 49 secs

Note: 96% people use their phone at home, 83% people use their phone at work and 72% people use their phone on the go

Smartphone In-Store

  • Price compare the same product online= 39%
  • Look up reviews on products or the store itself = 49%
  • Shop for the item online if they consider the wait time at the store too long =18%
  • Look up information on the product online right before buying it at the store = 26%
  • Search online for specific products = 56%
  • Begin their research about the product once they’re in the store = 36%
  • Order out of stock products elsewhere= 29%


Mobile phone are a part of our daily life engagement with our new technological world, whether through text messages, calls, e-mails or apps.

  • 75% of smartphone users end up making a purchase where 78% in store, 57% online via a computer, 33% via a phone
  • 72% use a smartphone while in the store
  • 55% use a smartphone to find a retailer
  • 50% use a smartphone to get promotions and coupons
  • 52% use a smartphone to compare prices
  • 48% use a smartphone to read reviews and product info
  • 36% use a smartphone to search in store inventory

What is a cellular networks ?


A cellular network is a radio network made up of a number of radio cells each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver known as a cell site or base station.


Cellular System

  1. Geographic region subdivided in radio cells
  2. Base station provides radio connectivity to the mobile station within cell
  3. Handover to neighboring base station when it’s necessary
  4. Base Station connected by some networking infrastructure

Mobile Station

A mobile station in the cellular network service intended for use while in the motion at unspecified locations. They can be either hand-held personal units or installed on vehicles.

Base Station

A base station in a mobile radio used for radio communication with the mobile stations. This station are locate at the center of a coverage region and consists of radio channels and receiver and transmitter antennas mounted on top of a tower.

How does it work

  • A telephone cellular or other device that can connect to a cellular network will be referred to a mobile station.
  • A network consists of both land and radio section. This types of network is commonly referred to as a Public land mobile network (PLMN).

Mobile Phone Networks

There is a number of different digital cellular technologies, including:

  • Global System for Mobile Communications=GSM
  • General Packet radio Service=GPRS
  • Code Division Multiple Access=CDMA
  • Evolution-Data Optimized=EV-DO
  • Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution=EDGE
  • 3GSM
  • Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication=DECT
  • Digital AMPS=TDMA
  • Integrated Digital Enhanced Network=iDEN

Some common full form:

  • UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
  • RAN: Radio Access Network
  • CN: Core Network
  • UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
  • RNC: Radio Network Controller = BSC
  • node B: Special name of base station in 3GPP Specification= BTS
  • UE: User Equipment
  • SRNS: Serving Radio nework Subsystem = SRNS+node BS
  • DRNS: Drift Radio Network Subsystem = DRNC+ node BS
  • CRNS: Controlling Radio Network Subsystem= CRNC+node BS
  • lu: Reference point between RNC and CN
  • lub: Reference point between node B and RNC
  • lur: Reference Point Between RNC and another RNC
  • Uu: Reference point between UE and node B

What is Ambient Intelligence ?


Ambient Intelligence will radically change how people interact with technology and this devices will be able to locate and recognize objects and people, as well as people’s intentions. In Ambient Intelligence, people will surrounded by a multitude of interconnected embedded systems. Intelligence and Embedding is the two main key features of Ambient Intelligence vision.

Steps of ambient intelligence

  • Needed to provide responsiveness and adaptability
  • Mobile tracking
  • Decision making
  • Interpret and recognize context and activity
  • Activity recognition, activity prediction

What is Intelligence?

The capacity to learn and solve problems, in particular :

  • The ability to solve novel problems
  • The ability to act rationally
  • The ability to act like humans

The Future…. Ambient Intelligence

Intelligent in Home and Building

  • Climate Control or automatic heating
  • Automatic communication redirection
  • Adaptive information services and help
  • Automatic lighting, kitchen etc
  • Adaptive technology
  • Technology disappear into the environment

KEY technologies

Ambient Intelligence builds on three recent key technologies:

  • Ubiquitous Computing: It means integration of microprocessors into everyday objects like furniture, clothing, white goods, toys, even paint.
  • Ubiquitous Communication: It’s enables these objects to communicate with each other and the user by means of ad-hoc and wireless networking.
  • An Intelligent User Interface: it’s enables the inhabitants of the Aml environment to control to control and interact with the environment in a natural and personalized way.

Modern Ambient Intelligence

Before 1990, Classic Ambient Intelligence goals were to surpass human intelligence in Language, reasoning and abstract problem solving.

Some common goals are given below:

  • Fraud Detection
  • Spam Filters
  • Search Engines
  • Natural language processing
  • Bio metric, face/fingerprint detection
  • Robotic and Machine Translation
  • Speech Understanding
  • Business Intelligence
  • Collective Intelligence
  • Data Mining
  • Autonomous Systems
  • Machine Learning
  • Predictive Analysis
  • Pattern Matching
  • Sending, Perception
  • Behavior Modeling
  • Real world Modeling


A variety of technologies can be used to enable Ambient Intelligence environments such as :

  • Bluetooth low energy
  • RFID
  • Ict implant
  • Sensors Software agents
  • Affective computing
  • Nanotechnology
  • Biometrics

Ongoing Challenges

  • Many Ambient Intelligence applications relying upon wireless sensors are at the mercy of the battery life for the sensor.
  • Challenge is to model multiple residents in an environment.
  • Challenge for Ambient Intelligence researchers is to design self testing and self repairing Ambient Intelligence software.
  • Issues related to security and privacy for Ambient Intelligence system.

Pervasive Computing

What is pervasive Computing?

Pervasive means “Existing Everywhere“, pervasive computing embodies the future of network computing enabling wireless communication between individuals and computing devices and between devices itself. This device are tiny and invisible microprocessors embedded in any type of objects like clothes, home, watches etc. It’s also known as Ubiquitous Computing.

Evolution of Pervasive Computing

  • Mainframe :
  • One computer, Many people
  • PC : One computer , One person
  • Pervasive Computing : One person, many computers


  • Quantified Self technologies have opened up new avenues for big data
  • This does however race ethical issues for how to deal with personal data protection and privacy, which needs to be explored in greater depth.
  • Combined with the development of ambient intelligent technologies and Ubiquitous Computing, we now have the potential to design really compelling responsive space that can encourage healthier habits
  • Rising levels of physical inactivity in urban work space and office environments leads to health problems that are growing cause for concern that should be addressed in the design of these spaces
  • The principles found in colour theory can be used to enhance responsive ambient intelligence lighting systems, encouraging desirable behavior.